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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

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​What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

COPD is a disease that affects the lungs.
The two main forms of COPD:

  1. Chronic bronchitis
    • Tubes that bring air into the lungs are permanently damaged
  2. Emphysema
    • Air sacs of the lungs are damaged 

Signs and Symptoms

​There is no cure for COPD but symptoms can be controlled and lung damage can be further prevented.

COPD 1.png

​Risk Factors of COPD

COPD 2.png

Complications associated with COPD

COPD 3.png

How is COPD Diagnosed?

  • Family and medical history
  • Review any signs and symptoms
  • Discuss any exposure
    (For example: secondhand smoke)
  • Laboratory test
  • Chest X-ray
  • Lung function test
  • CT scan ​

How is COPD Treated?

  • Inhaler (steroid)
  • Lung therapies (Oxygen therapy)
  • Surgery (Lung volume reduction surgery/Lung Transplant)

​How to Manage COPD?

- Avoid Possible Triggers

  • Avoid secondhand smoke
  • Quit smoking

- Protect Your Health

  • Wash your hands regularly
  • Avoid crowded places during the flu and cold season
  • Practise good oral hygiene
  • Get vaccinated against flu and pneumonia. Encourage family members to do so too

- Engage In Moderate Exercise

  • Energy level
  • Body’s use of oxygen
  • ↓ Shortness of breath
  • ↓ Anxiety, stress & depression
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