All patients will receive painkillers before and throughout the operation. Post-operative pain management options are:
- Swallowed painkillers like panadol
- Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as brufen, ponstan, synflex, voltaren, arcoxia, or celebrex
- Opioids such as tramadol and oxycodone. Side effects are rare, and the benefits of decreased pain far outweigh the side effects of painkillers.
- Panadol - drug allergy, liver impairment, and kidney impairment
- NSAIDs - drug allergy, aggravation of asthma, gastritis, liver impairment, and kidney impairment.
- Opioids - drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and itching.
- Injected painkillers like opioids such as tramadol, fentanyl, morphine, or oxycodone, and an injectable type ofNSAIDcalled toradol.
Patient controlled analgesia (PCA)
A pump containing an opioid is connected to your iv cannula. This delivers a fixed dose of medication when pressed. It allows you to control the amount of painkiller you receive, and therefore control the amount of pain you feel. There is a lockout built in so you cannot overdose yourself.
A very fine needle is inserted into the spinal canal. Local anaesthetic is injected through the needle and acts on the spinal nerves to produce loss of pain sensation and strength in the lower half of the body. Usually used for operations on the lower half of the body. Side effects are uncommon and include headache, bleeding at the injection site, and nerve injury. The risk of paralysis is extremely rare.
A needle is inserted into the epidural space just around the spinal canal. Local anaesthetic may be injected through the needle, or a thin tube may be placed in the space, after which local anaesthetic is injected through it. The epidural works in almost the same way as the spinal. Side effects are also similar to those for the spinal option.
A needle is inserted into the space around the nerve that supplies the part of the body to be operated on; can be the arm, the leg, or even the abdomen. Ultrasound guidance is often used to ensure that the needle is in the right location. Nerve stimulation may also be used to confirm that the needle is in the right location. You may feel painless twitches of your muscles during the nerve stimulation. Local anaesthetic is injected through the needle and acts on the nerve to produce loss of pain sensation and strength in the affected body part. Side effects are uncommon and include bleeding at the injection site, injury to surrounding structures, and nerve injury. The risk of paralysis (like the spinal option) is extremely rare.